Obesity, Visceral (Total 219214 Papers Found)

BACKGROUND/AIMS Left-sided diverticulitis is increasing in Japan, and many studies report that left-sided diverticulitis is more likely to be severe. Therefore, it is important to identify the features and risk factors for left-sided diverticulitis. We hypothesized that left-sided diverticulitis in Japan is related to obesity and conducted a study of the features and risk factors for this disorder in Japan. METHODS Right-sided diverticulitis and left-sided diverticulitis patients (total of 215 ...
BACKGROUND Our aim was to evaluate the effect of visceral obesity and impact of severe hydronephrosis on surgical complexity in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LRNU). METHODS From January 2000 to December 2013, 169 patients underwent radical nephroureterectomy at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 patients who underwent LRNU. We measured total fat area (TFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) at the level of the umbilicus using computed ...
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Our previous studies reported that paired box 6 mutation heterozygosity (Pax6(m/+)) led to defective proinsulin processing and subsequent abnormal glucose metabolism in mice at 6  months of age. However, high-fat diet exposure could be an important incentive for diabetes development. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel diabetic model imitating human type 2 diabetes by exposing Pax6(m/+) mic ...
Als Ziele in der Prävention des Diabetes gelten auf physiologischer Ebene die Reduktion der viszeralen Adipositas, auf struktureller Ebene die Implementation des Präventionsmanagers und auf konzeptueller Ebene die Realisierung von Maßnahmen zur primären Prävention des Diabetes in der täglichen Praxis. Das IMAGE-Toolkit zur Diabetesprävention ist eines der Produkte einer europäischen Studiengruppe des IMAGE-Projekts. Es basiert auf der IMAGE-evidenzbasierten Leitlinie und dem IMAGE-Traini ...
The present work describes the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in young mexican women. 96 women from 18 to 40 years of age were included. All of them were measured (height, waist and hip) and weighed, blood pressure was registered, laboratory exams were taken and a questionnaire was answered. Cardiovascular risk factors prevalence was estimated and the average concentrations of lipids and glucose and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared by age, BMI and WHI group. Of the ...
The role of steatosis in the progression of liver damage in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) was studied. Enrolled were 180 consecutive liver biopsy-proven CHC patients and 41 additional subjects with a known duration of infection. We evaluated the histological activity index (HAI), grade of fibrosis and steatosis, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), distribution of body fat, HCV genotype, and levels of HCV RNA. Eighty six (48%) patients showed steatosis, and a higher prevalence was observed in genotype 3a ...
Visceral adipose dysfunction is a major cause of metabolic disorders. However, there is lack of a clinical index for prediction of visceral fat dysfunction in Asians. The present study aims to establish a visceral adiposity index for evaluation of metabolic health status in Chinese, the largest Asian ethnic group. 485 subjects were recruited from Lianqian Community, Xiamen and received abdominal computed tomography(CT) for visceral fat area. A Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was created ...
BACKGROUND The role of growth hormone (GH) in obesity is controversial. Childhood obesity is characterized by reduced GH secretion. Low, high and normal serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels have been described in obese children in the face of low GH secretion. There is conflicting information on the interaction of GH and obesity upon components of the GH-IGF-I-insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) system and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE ...
Compared to subcutaneous fat, visceral fat is more metabolically active, leading to chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of visceral obesity on colorectal cancer outcomes using computed tomography (CT) imaging to measure visceral fat. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgical resection for colorectal cancer. Visceral fat volume was measured by preoperative CT scans. Final analysis was performed by stratifying p ...
BACKGROUND AND AIM Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 di ...
BACKGROUND It is believed that the glycemic index (GI) may be used as a strategy to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Obesity is a multifactorial condition, a risk factor for development of other NCDs. Among the different types, abdominal obesity is highlighted, which is essential for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and it is related to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and changes in levels of inflammatory markers. Such indicators are closely related to the d ...
BACKGROUND Elevated alanine amino transferase, attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver, is associated with later development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We sought to determine whether maternal ALT values are associated with subsequent development of gestational diabetes. METHODS We performed a nested case-control study utilizing prospectively banked serum samples collected in early gestation. We excluded women with known diabetes, liver disease, or alcohol use. We included 83 cases of gestatio ...
The recent increase in the prevalence of obesity has significant contribution to development of atherosclerosis and consequent cardiovascular disease. Obesity especially visceral obesity causes insulin resistance and is associated with dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and hypertension, all of which exacerbate atherosclerosis. One plausible mechanism proposed recently is that factors known as adipocytokines, produced by adipose tissue in obesity can directly impact the atherogenic envir ...
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool for evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies have shown that it is increased in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Also, insulin resistance is generally considered to be of major importance in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However the area of screening prediabetics for coronary artery disease remains unclear. Given that glucose intolerance and insulin resistance precede the developm ...
We examined the effect of genetic polymorphisms of proteins regulating intrahepatic processing of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) and the supply of neutral lipids to the liver on the hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB in obesity. Hepatic secretion of very low density apolipoprotein B-100 (VLDL apoB) was measured using an infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine in 29 obese men. Isotopic enrichment and turnover of VLDL apoB was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ...
Although abdominal obesity or visceral obesity is considered to be one of the components of metabolic syndrome and to have an important role in a cluster of cardiovascular risks, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, probably because there is considerable disagreement about the location and definition of abdominal obesity or visceral obesity.In this review article, the important role of visceral fat accumulation in the development of a variety of l ...
OBJECTIVE In visceral obesity, an overactive endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system promotes increased caloric intake and decreases energy expenditure, which are mitigated by global or peripheral CB1R blockade. In mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), inhibition of food intake by the peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist JD5037 could be attributed to endogenous leptin due to the rapid reversal of hyperleptinemia that maintains leptin resistance, but the signaling pathway engaged by leptin ...
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), frailty is a clinically relevant measure of increased vulnerability that should be included in the preoperative risk assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived phase angle (PA) reflects cell membrane integrity and function. Few studies are available on the relative contribution of adiposity distribution on frailty, and about the influences of frailty and visceral obesity in PA value. Therefore, we aimed to evalua ...
AIM The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically in recent years, and the cluster of metabolic abnormalities it encompasses results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The role of abdominal (visceral) obesity and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms central to this association have been the subject of intensive research in recent times. The aim of this review is to correlate data in this area, highlighting the central role of excess visceral fat an ...
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been extensively used in studies of hypertension for decades. More recently, a leptin receptor– deficient SHR (SHR/ NDmer-cp; SHR/cp) has been developed as a model for the human metabolic syndrome, characterized by elevated blood pressure, visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. In this issue of Hypertension Nagase et al1 have used the SHR/cp to explore the role of oxidative stress and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation on t ...
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has become a worldwide epidemic, alongside with a high socioeconomic cost, and its diagnostic criteria must include at least three out of the five features: visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and high fasting glucose levels. MetS shows an increased oxidative stress associated with platelet hyperactivation, an essential component for thrombus formation and ischemic events in MetS patients. Platelet aggregation is governed by the peroxide to ...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo. The pathogenesis of steatosis is due to both viral and host factors. Viral steatosis is mostly reported in patients with genotype 3a, whereas metabolic steatosis is often associated with genotype 1 and metabolic syndrome. Several molecular mechanisms responsible for steatosis have been associated with the HCV core protein, which is able to induce gene expression and activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein ...
Malnutrition is common in HIV infection. Early studies demonstrated a disproportionate depletion of body cell mass compared to body weight, plus relative expansion of extracellular water volume. Neutron activation studies showed that both potassium and nitrogen were depleted in the HIV+ subjects, whereas cross-sectional imaging documented depletion of skeletal muscle mass. The etiology of malnutrition affects the composition of lost weight. Malnutrition is associated with adverse outcomes, where ...
OBJECTIVE Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel indicator for the assessment of visceral obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between VAI and premature ejaculation (PE). MATERIALS AND METHOD A total of 300 men were included in the study. Hundred and fifty men with PE and 150 men without PE (control). All men were evaluated for PE by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). VAI levels were calculated using body mass index (BMI), high density lipoprotein and tri ...
Altered macrophage kinetics is a pivotal mechanism of visceral obesity-induced inflammation and cardiometabolic risk. Because monocytes can differentiate into either proatherogenic M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, approaches that limit M1 while promoting M2 differentiation represent a unique therapeutic strategy. We hypothesized that adiponectin may prime human monocytes toward the M2 phenotype. Adiponectin promoted the alternative activation of human monocytes into anti-infla ...
BACKGROUND Growing evidence suggests a link between body composition and serum osteocalcin. Here we examined such an association between serum osteocalcin and body composition in Korean obese men. METHODS Eighty-six men, aged 20 to 76 years, who visited the obesity clinic at the Division of Family Medicine, Severance hospital, Seoul, Korea were recruited for this study. Abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to measure the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area ...
The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocan ...
The combined appearance of different cardiovascular risk factors seems to be more prevalent in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased visceral obesity, thereby being components of the so-called metabolic syndrome. Alterations in transcription factors result in complex dysregulation of gene expression, which might be the key to understanding insulin resistance-associated clinical clustering of coronary risk factors at the cellular or gene regulatory level. Recent examples ar ...
Cardiovascular risk factors have traditionally been divided into 2 categories: modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes), and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, gender, and hereditary factors). However, more recent data indicate clustering of several metabolic and familial factors that are often related to each other. A pattern of lipoprotein abnormalities characterized by increased hepatic production of apolip ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the hormonal, cardiovascular and metabolic responses of visceral vs subcutaneous obese men to infused adrenaline. DESIGN Intervention study of an hour adrenaline infusion (0.01 micrograms/kg fat-free mass/min). SUBJECTS Eighteen moderately obese men (age: 30-40 y, BMI: 28-34 kg/m2) divided according to their degree (low vs high) of visceral adipose tissue (AT) accumulation. MEASUREMENTS Various fatness and fat distribution variables (computed tomography and anthrop ...
Most available data suggest that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is smaller than expected based on risk calculations during fertile years; therefore, more studies are needed on long-term cardiovascular consequences. Evidence is accumulating that postmenopausal women with PCOS have an increased risk of cerebrovascular events and cardiovascular morbidity. These events are partially related to persisting hyperandrogenism but are mostly correl ...
OBJECTIVES Obesity increases the incidence of multiple types of cancer. Our previous work has shown that a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) leads to visceral obesity, pancreatic inflammation, and accelerated pancreatic neoplasia in KrasG12D (KC) mice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an HFCD on visceral adipose inflammation with emphasis on potential differences between distinct visceral adipose depots. METHODS We examined the weight and visceral obesity in both wild-typ ...
To evaluate the impact of visceral obesity on laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) and decide the best index to reflect completion of mesorectum and perioperative outcomes.Patients with rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic TME were enrolled. The data including body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), visceral fat area/body surface area (VFA/BSA), mesorectum fat ratio (MFR), pelvic fat area (PFA), pelvic fat ratio (PFR), completion of mesorectum, and other perioperative outcome ...
BACKGROUND Type-2 diabetic patients exhibit postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Several inflammatory markers are also risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) and number of leukocytes. There is a relationship between the increase in triglycerides and that of leukocytes in the postprandial period. Our objective was to evaluate whether the lipid changes in the postprandial period are related to changes in the inflammatory m ...
Second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids display several features of the metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, liver steatosis, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. In the framework of an extensive study on such metabolic, hormonal and functional perturbations, the phospholipid fatty acid pattern and ex vivo metabolism of D-glucose were recently investigated in the soleus muscle of these omega3-depleted rats. The present stu ...
Type-2 diabetes is strongly linked to visceral obesity and elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids. For years this correlation of obesity to diabetes has intrigued the minds of researchers and research in this direction has led to a possible solution to this question. Human Genome project has identified nearly 150 orphan GPCRs. The reverse pharmacology approaches have identified free fatty acids as ligands for the GPR40 family of orphan receptors. This review mainly emphasizes on the rol ...
Glucocorticoids play an important role in determining adipose tissue metabolism and distribution. Patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving corticosteroid therapy develop a reversible visceral obesity. In obese patients, although circulating concentrations of cortisol are not consistently elevated, local conversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol in adipose tissue, catalyzed by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1), could amplify glucocorticoid signaling. We have ...
BACKGROUND Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker overexpressed in adenocarcinoma that has proinflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported that CEA is positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Because visceral obesity is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases, CEA may also be associated with visceral adiposity. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between serum CEA concentration and visceral obesity in female Korean nonsmokers. ...
  • Katrina Ray,
  • Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &Hepatology
  • 2013
visceral obesity and hyperinsulinaemia. Strikingly, KHK-A/C KO mice did not develop glucose-induced fatty livers; upon histological examination, steatosis was visible only in the livers of wild-type mice. Moreover, activation of aldose reductase and the polyol pathway in the liver was determined to be critical for the endogenous conversion of glucose into fructose and the resultant negative effects observed in wild-type mice on a highglucose diet. Importantly, mice deficient in aldose reductase ...
Relationship between visceral obesity and development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been widely studied during last years. Fat tissue is considered to be endocrine and secretory organ liberating wide spectrum of protein and signal factors-adipokines. We studied 27 healthy subjects and 55 patients (including 39 patients with IHD) with visceral and gynoid obesity. Abdominal fat content was assessed quantitatively by computed tomography. It was proven that total volume of fat tissue in viscer ...
We investigated gender differences in the relationships between the Trp64Arg variant of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) gene in obesity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects. In 476 nondiabetic Japanese-Americans (M/F=204/272), the Trp64Arg variant of the beta(3)-AR gene was examined. The presence or absence of the Trp64Arg mutation was examined in DNA separated from leukocytes in peripheral blood using the PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of abnormal allele of the beta(3)-AR gene wa ...
Objective: Visceral obesity is an etiological factor and a marker of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP). Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a marker for visceral obesity, has also been recognized to have a stronger correlation to poor outcomes. With this study, we aim to assess the role of NAFLD as an etiologic factor in patients with AP. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) based case control study of 530 non-alcoholic adults were classifie ...
To examine the association between CT measures of visceral obesity and short-term postoperative outcomes in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) patients. In this retrospective study, 76 patients treated with unilateral laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for stage I–III renal cancer were classified as obese or non-obese by preoperative CT-based measures of adiposity [obese: visceral fat area (VFA) > 100 cm2, BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2]. Clinical variables, Fuhrman grade, operation time, estimate ...
As exemplified in patients with Cushing's syndrome, glucocorticoids play an important role in regulating adipose tissue distribution and function, but circulating cortisol concentrations are normal in most patients with obesity. However, human omental adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can generate glucocorticoid locally through the expression of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) type 1 (11 beta-HSD1), which, in intact cells, has been considered to be an oxoreductase, conve ...
In the last three decades in the United States the prevalence of overweight/obesity in pediatric population has more than tripled, causing the onset also in pediatric age of diseases previously considered exclusively of adults, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) [1]. MetS represents a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) (Table 1). The prevalence of pediatric MetS ranged from 2% to 9% in the general po ...
We examined the independent associations among abdominal adipose tissue (AT), liver fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid variables in 161 Caucasian men who had a wide variation in adiposity. We measured AT and liver fat by computed tomography and CRF by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Visceral AT remained a significant (P <or= 0.05) predictor of plasma triglycerides (TG), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (TC/HDL-C) after s ...
................................................................................ 4 List of papers ........................................................................... 6 Abbreviations .......................................................................... 7 Introduction ............................................................................ 8 Obesity and the metabolic syndrome .......................................... 8 Energy balance .............................................. ...
OBJECTIVE Intra-abdominal fat is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PC), but little is known about its contribution to PC precursors known as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our goal was to evaluate quantitative radiologic measures of abdominal/visceral obesity as possible diagnostic markers of IPMN severity/pathology. METHODS In a cohort of 34 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (17 benign; 17 malignant) with preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) ...
The potential health benefits of tea have long been studied. This study examined the role of powdered sea buckthorn leaf tea (SLT) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The mice were fed two different doses of SLT (1% and 5%, wt/wt) for six weeks. SLT suppressed body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner and significantly reduced visceral fat, plasma levels of leptin, triglyceride and total cholesterol and ALT activity compared with the high-fat-fed control mice. SLT also decreased hepatic trigl ...
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infection confers immunological and survival advantages, at the cost of induction of significant metabolic disturbances. These include insulin resistance, disturbances in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, adipocyte physiology and body fat partitioning with peripheral lipoatrophy and visceral obesity. These metabolic disturbances produce clinical manifestations which impact on the future health of the HIV-infected patient, incl ...