Neoplasms (Total 1939014 Papers Found)

Copyright © 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society. Malignant gliomas account for approximately 70% of the 22,500 new cases of malignant primary brain tumors that are diagnosed in adults in the United States each year.1-3 Although relatively uncommon, malignant gliomas are associated with disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. Despite optimal treatment, the median survival is only 12 to 15 months for patients with glioblastomas and 2 to 5 years for patients with anaplastic gliomas. Recent ...
  • Ling Yang,
  • World journal of gastroenterology
  • 2006
Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China, based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a sli ...
The concept that the immune system can recognize and destroy nascent transformed cells was originally embodied in the cancer immunosurveillance hypothesis of Burnet and Thomas. This hypothesis was abandoned shortly afterwards because of the absence of strong experimental evidence supporting the concept. New data, however, clearly show the existence of cancer immunosurveillance and also indicate that it may function as a component of a more general process of cancer immunoediting. This process is ...
Following the transfer into fertilized mouse eggs of recombinant genes composed of the upstream region of the rat insulin II gene linked to sequences coding for the large-T antigen of simian virus 40, large-T antigen is detected exclusively in the β-Cells of the endocrine pancreas of transgenic mice. The α- and δ-cells normally found in the islets of Langerhans are rare and disordered. Well-vascularized β-cell tumours arise in mice harbouring and inheriting these hybrid oncogenes. ...
Numerous studies have established a causal link between aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and tumorigenesis, indicating that mTOR inhibition may have therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that rapamycin and its analogs activate the MAPK pathway in human cancer, in what represents a novel mTORC1-MAPK feedback loop. We found that tumor samples from patients with biopsy-accessible solid tumors of advanced disease treated with RAD001, a rapamycin derivative, showed an ...
A related DNA fragment distinct from the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERBB2 genes was detected by reduced stringency hybridization of v-erbB to normal genomic human DNA. Characterization of the cloned DNA fragment mapped the region of v-erbB homology to three exons with closest identity of 64% and 67% to a contiguous region within the tyrosine kinase domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERBB2 proteins, respectively. cDNA cloning revealed a predicted 148-kDa transmembrane p ...
PURPOSE BAY 43-9006 is a novel dual-action Raf kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor that inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. This study established the safety and pharmacokinetics of BAY 43-9006 in 69 patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS BAY 43-9006 (50 to 800 mg) was administered once or twice daily on a varying weekly schedule. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in all patients; preliminary tumor response was als ...
One of the most serious possible consequences of cancer therapy is the development of a second cancer, especially leukemia. Several distinct subsets of therapy-related leukemia can be distinguished currently. These include classic therapy-related myeloid leukemia, leukemia that follows treatment with agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and leukemias with 21q22 rearrangements or inv(16) or t(15;17). These types of leukemia are discussed in detail in this article. ...
Osteochondromas (or osteocartilaginous exostoses) make up about 30% to 40% of benign bone tumors. Most are solitary lesions but some are multiple, usually with autosomal dominant inheritance. From 1% to 4% of osteochondromas occur in the spine, where they can cause a variety of signs and symptoms, including those of spinal cord or spinal root compression. The authors present five patients with osteochondromas of the spine and review the findings together with those of over 130 cases reported sin ...
EXPRESSION of P-glycoprotein, the product of theMDR1 gene, confers multidrug resistance on cell lines and human tumours (reviewed in refs 1,2). P-glycoprotein (relative molecular mass 170,000) is an ATP-dependent, active transporter which pumps hydrophobic drugs out of cells3, but its normal physiological role is unknown. It is a member of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily of transporters4, which includes many bacterial transport systems, the putative peptide transporter from the major ...
Autophagy is characterized by the sequestration of bulk cytoplasm, including damaged proteins and organelles, and delivery of the cargo to lysosomes for degradation. Although the autophagic pathway is also linked to tumour suppression activity, the mechanism is not yet clear. Here we report that cytosolic FoxO1, a forkhead O family protein, is a mediator of autophagy. Endogenous FoxO1 was required for autophagy in human cancer cell lines in response to oxidative stress or serum starvation, but t ...
  • Hye-Kyung Na, Y. -J. Surh,
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2008
Frequent consumption of green tea, one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages, has been known to protect against development of various cancers according to numerous experimental and several population-based studies. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects exerted by green tea and its components have been extensively investigated. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to induce expression of glutathione S-transferase, gluta ...
As technology for microarray analysis becomes widespread, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to compare and combine the results of experiments that explore the same scientific question. In this article, we present a rank-aggregation approach for combining results from several microarray studies. The motivation for this approach is twofold; first, the final results of microarray studies are typically expressed as lists of genes, rank-ordered by a measure of the strength of evidence ...
To determine the mechanism by which the (n-3) fatty acids (FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decrease proliferation and induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, we examined the effects of EPA and DHA on the lipid composition of lipid rafts as well as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) raft localization and phosphorylation. (n-3) FA (a combination of EPA and DHA) inhibited (P < 0.05) the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells by 48-62% in the presence and ...
Inflammatory diseases are commonly associated with depressed mood. This association may be influenced by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, we assessed whether cytokine levels and mood (measured with the profile of mood states) could be altered by a mild, non-sickness inducing, acute inflammatory stimulus. Using a randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 30 healthy male volunteers were injected with Salmonella typhi vaccine or placebo. Assessments of mood, sympt ...
BACKGROUND Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) of the breast is considered a marker for an increased risk of carcinoma in both breasts. However, the frequent association of LCIS with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) suggests a precursor-product relation. The possible genomic relation between synchronous LCIS and ILC was analyzed using the technique of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). METHODS Twenty-four samples from the University of California-San Francisco pathology archives ...
Carcinogenic potential of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic troglitazone was assessed in 104-week studies in mice and rats. Mice were given 50, 400, or 800 mg/kg, male rats 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg, and female rats 25, 50, or 200 mg/kg. Vehicle and placebo controls were included. Survival was significantly decreased in both sexes of both species at high doses, but was adequate for valid evaluation of carcinogenicity. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue was observed in both species ...
UNLABELLED All successful cancer therapies are limited by the development of drug resistance. The increase in the understanding of the molecular and biochemical bases of drug efficacy has also facilitated studies elucidating the mechanism(s) of drug resistance. Experimental approaches that can help predict the eventual clinical drug resistance, coupled with the evolution of systematic genomic and proteomic technologies, are rapidly identifying novel resistance mechanisms. In this review, we prov ...
The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its unique receptor, CXCR4, are required for normal cardiovascular development, but a critical role for SDF-1 in postnatal vascular remodeling and the mechanisms underlying SDF-1/CXCR-4 vasculogenesis are unclear. Here we show that SDF-1 is expressed by the vascular endothelium from selected healthy and tumor tissues. In vitro, primary endothelial cells constitutively express SDF-1 that is detected in the cytoplasm, on the cell surface, and in t ...
It is now accepted that the growth of solid tumours is dependent on their capacity to acquire a blood supply, and much effort has been directed towards the development of agents (known as anti-angiogenics) that disrupt this process. More recently, it has become apparent that targeted destruction of the established tumour vasculature is another avenue for exciting therapeutic opportunities. In this article, we present evidence that vascular targeting is an effective antitumour strategy in animal ...
The diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at an early stage, as well as better prediction of outcome remains clinically challenging due to the lack of specific and robust non-invasive markers. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly those found in the bloodstream, has opened up new perspectives for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether expression profiles of specific miRNAs in plasma could accurately discriminate between NSCLC patient ...
This study was based on 192 patients treated surgically for 228 metastatic lesions of the long bones from 1986 through 1995. The survival rate was 0.3 at 1 year after surgery. The surgical treatment consisted of resection and reconstruction of the involved bone (18), intralesional curettage (133), or stabilization only (77). Reconstruction was achieved by an endoprosthesis in 54 cases, by an osteosynthetic device in 162, by cement only in 10. In two cases no reconstruction was performed. The loc ...
BACKGROUND Gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes, quality of life, and costs of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic gastric banding. STUDY DESIGN Between 2002 and 2007, 250 patients with a body mass index of 35 to 60 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to gastric bypass or gastric banding. After exclusion, 111 patients underwent gastric bypa ...
The stability of oligomeric human tumour necrasis factor alpha (TNF) at bioactive levels has been studied by two immunoenzymatic assays: one able to specifically detect oligomeric and not monomeric TNF (O-e.l.i.s.a.) and the other able to detect both forms (OM-e.l.i.s.a.). The selectivity of O-e.l.i.s.a. and OM-e.l.i.s.a. for oligomeric and monomeric TNF was demonstrated with isolated forms prepared by partial dissociation of recombinant TNF with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide and gel-filtration ...
Pheochromocytomas, intra-adrenal paraganglioma, and extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal chromaffin cells or similar cells in extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Serious morbidity and mortality rates associated with these tumors are related to the potent effects of catecholamines on various organs, especially those of the cardiovascular system. Before any surgical procedure is done, preope ...
Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2007 (the most recent year for which data are available), >142,000 persons received a diagnosis for colorectal cancer and >53,000 persons died. Screening for colorectal cancer has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of and mortality from the disease. In 2008, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that persons aged 50-75 years at aver ...
PURPOSE Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated hyperthermia (HT) enhances radiation response. These trials, however, generally lacked rigorous thermal dose prescription and administration. We report the final results of a prospective randomized trial of superficial tumors (</= 3 cm depth) comparing radiotherapy versus HT combined with radiotherapy, using the parameter describing the number of cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C exceeded by 90% of monitored points within the tu ...
The GATA family of transcription factors participates in gastrointestinal (GI) development. Increases in GATA-4 and -5 expression occur in differentiation and GATA-6 expression in proliferation in embryonic and adult settings. We now show that in colorectal cancer (CRC) and gastric cancer promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing are frequent for GATA-4 and -5 but are never seen for GATA-6. Potential antitumor target genes upregulated by GATA-4 and -5, the trefoil factors, inhibina ...
Aurora-A kinase is a one of the key regulators during mitosis progression. Aurora-A kinase is a potential target for anticancer therapies because overexpression of Aurora-A, which is frequently observed in some human cancers, results in aberrant mitosis leading to chromosomal instability and possibly tumorigenesis. MK-5108 is a novel small molecule with potent inhibitory activity against Aurora-A kinase. Although most of the Aurora-kinase inhibitors target both Aurora-A and Aurora-B, MK-5108 spe ...
  • Maurice Tubiana,
  • Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • 2009
Second primary malignancies (SPMs) occurring after oncological treatment have become a major concern during the past decade. Their incidence has long been underestimated because most patients had a short life expectancy after treatment or their follow-up was shorter than 15 years. With major improvement of long-term survival, longer follow-up, cancer registries and end-result programs, it was found that the cumulative incidence of SPM could be as high as 20% of patients treated by radiotherapy. ...
PURPOSE Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder are rare and they include small and large cell variants. We reviewed our experience with treating these tumors with radical cystectomy to evaluate their histopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS From August 1971 to June 2004, 2,005 patients underwent radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer at our institution, of whom 25 (1.2%) had neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, including small cell carcinoma ...
PURPOSE Diffuse gliomas represent the most prevalent class of primary brain tumor. Despite significant recent advances in the understanding of glioblastoma [World Health Organization (WHO) IV], its most malignant subtype, lower grade (WHO II and III) glioma variants remain comparatively understudied, especially in light of their notable clinical heterogeneity. Accordingly, we sought to identify and characterize clinically relevant molecular subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas. ...
The central role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the folate metabolism renders MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) potential modulators of a variety of disorders whose development depends on folate/homocysteine imbalance. Here, we provide additional evidence on the protective role of these polymorphisms in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common pediatric cancer. A case-control study was conducted in 270 ALL patients and 300 healthy controls of French-Canadi ...
BACKGROUND The ATHENA study was designed to assess the performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping compared with liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening in a large US population aged 21 years and older. We did a subanalysis of this population to compare the screening performance of the cobas HPV test versus liquid-based cytology in women aged 25 years and older, and assess management strategies for HPV-positive women. METHODS Women a ...
Brain endothelial cells are unique among endothelial cells in that they express apical junctional complexes, including tight junctions, which quite resemble epithelial tight junctions both structurally and functionally. They form the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) which strictly controls the exchanges between the blood and the brain compartments by limiting passive diffusion of blood-borne solutes while actively transporting nutrients to the brain. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence indi ...
Intratumoral hypoxia, a frequent finding in metastatic cancer, results in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are implicated in many steps of breast cancer metastasis, including metastatic niche formation through increased expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) proteins, enzymes that remodel collagen at the metastatic site and recruit bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the metastatic niche. We investigated the effect of two chemically and mechanist ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical family donors is a promising therapeutic option for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Here we explored in 121 patients, mostly with advanced stage diseases, a sirolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) to allow the infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts from partially HLA-matched family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5 ...
UNLABELLED We aimed to identify the specific subset of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) that are methylation-silenced during the earliest steps of hepatocarcinogenesis, and to further evaluate whether these genes can serve as predictive biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) emergence. A total of 482 liver tissues including 177 pairs of HCCs and matched nontumor livers and 128 liver biopsies from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients were analyzed for quantitative methylation analysis in 24 TSG ...
Sir: We report a rare case of iatrogenic sepsis in which the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) after injection of gram-negative bacteria are described for the first time. Since the original publication in The Lancet [1] there has been growing evidence that elevated PCT levels in the absence of hypercalcitoninemia are specific markers of the severity of the host response in patients with bacterial or fungal infection [2-4]. Rapid PCT increase within 2-4 h after intravenous endotoxin injection at a ...
Propolis is known for a long time for its health benefits and biological activities. Here, the red variety from the northeast of Brazil was chemically analyzed and extracts were investigated regarding their antioxidant and antitumor activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts, obtained from the red propolis, revealed polyphenol content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential and enzymatic activities for catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated for human lar ...