Inflammation (Total 290662 Papers Found)

The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) guideline committee, chaired by Dr Y. Tsubakihara, presents the Japanese guidelines entitled "Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease." These guidelines replace the "2004 JSDT Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients," and contain new, additional guidelines for peritoneal dialysis (PD), non-dialysis (ND), and pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Chapter 1 presents reference values for diagnosing anemia ...
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are of great commercial interest. Theoretically, during processing and handling of CNT and in abrasion processes on composites containing CNT, inhalable CNT particles might be set free. For hazard assessment, we performed a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with a multiwall CNT (MWCNT) material (Nanocyl NC 7000) according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413. Wistar rats were head-nose exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, 13 weeks, total ...
AIMS Increased dietary fish-oil consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart events and has pronounced effects on dyslipidaemia. However, the effects of fish-oil supplement on vascular function and metabolic profile in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are unclear. METHODS In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 97 Type 2 DM patients without prior cardiovascular disease to fish-oil (4 g/day, n = 49) or olive-oil (with equivalent calories, as place ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cholangiocarcinoma, the second most common liver cancer, can be classified as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We performed an integrative genomic analysis of ICC samples from a large series of patients. METHODS We performed a gene expression profile, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array, and mutation analyses using formalin-fixed ICC samples from 149 patients. Associations with clinicopathologic traits and patient outcome ...
Plasmodium falciparum can cause a diffuse encephalopathy known as cerebral malaria (CM), a major contributor to malaria associated mortality. Despite treatment, mortality due to CM can be as high as 30% while 10% of survivors of the disease may experience short- and long-term neurological complications. The pathogenesis of CM and other forms of severe malaria is multi-factorial and appear to involve cytokine and chemokine homeostasis, inflammation and vascular injury/repair. Identification of pr ...
Inflammatory diseases are commonly associated with depressed mood. This association may be influenced by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, we assessed whether cytokine levels and mood (measured with the profile of mood states) could be altered by a mild, non-sickness inducing, acute inflammatory stimulus. Using a randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 30 healthy male volunteers were injected with Salmonella typhi vaccine or placebo. Assessments of mood, sympt ...
Neurotoxic amphetamines cause damage to monoamine nerve terminals of the striatum by unknown mechanisms. Microglial activation contributes to the neuronal damage that accompanies injury, disease, and inflammation, but a role for these cells in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received little attention. We show presently that D-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), D-amphetamine, and p-chloroamphetamine, each of which has been linked to dopamine (DA) or serotonin nerve t ...
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) are associated with worse cognitive function and decline in old age. DESIGN Two independent population-based cohort studies. SETTING The Rotterdam Study (mean follow-up 4.6 years) and the Leiden 85-plus Study (maximal follow-up 5 years). PARTICIPANTS Three thousand eight hundred seventy-four individuals, mean age 72, from the Rotterdam Study, and ...
OBJECTIVE To prospectively monitor inflammatory activity over a prolonged period in a cohort of Turkish patients with FMF, their healthy relatives and healthy controls and to relate this to their MEFV genotypes. METHODS 43 patients with FMF and 75 of their asymptomatic relatives underwent fortnightly assessments and venesection for measurement of CRP and SAA over 5 months. 50 unrelated healthy population matched controls were also studied. MEFV genotyping was performed on all participants and ...
Human type 1 diabetes results from the selective destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells during islet inflammation. Cytokines and reactive radicals released during this process contribute to beta-cell death. Here we show that mice with a disrupted gene coding for poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP–/– mice) are completely resistant to the development of diabetes induced by the beta-cell toxin streptozocin. The mice remained normoglycemic and maintained normal levels of total pa ...
Astrocyte-enriched cultures were established upon passaging of primary cultures from the myelencephalon and mesencephalon of 7-9-week-old human embryos. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that third-fourth passage cultures were composed of a highly enriched population of proliferating, epithelioid cells, up to 90% of which expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); no macrophages and very few fibroblasts (less than 2%) were present. GFAP expression and proliferation declined upon further ...
INTRODUCTION Cannabis-based medicines have a number of therapeutic indications, including anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The endocannabinoid receptor system, including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and receptor 2 (CB2) and the endocannabinoids, are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that cannabis-based drugs have therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthriti ...
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating type of stroke that lacks a specific treatment. An intense immune response develops after ICH, which contributes to neuronal injury, disability, and death. However, the specific mediators of inflammation-induced injury remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine whether blood-derived CCR2+ Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes contribute to disability. ICH was induced in mice and the resulting inflammatory response was quantified ...
Lymphoma patients often exhibit abnormal lipid metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that a decrease in circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may occur during lymphomagenesis, reflecting underlying etiology such as inflammation. We investigated the relationship between prediagnostic HDL-C and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, serum HDL-C and total cholesterol concentrations from fasting blood, ...
The present study evaluated the preclinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of trans-pterostilbene, a constituent of some plants. Right jugular vein cannulated male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed i.v. with 20 mg/kg of pterostilbene and samples were analysed by the reverse phase HPLC method. Serum AUC, serum t(1/2), urine t(1/2), Cl(total) and Vd(beta) were 17.5 +/- 6.6 microg/h/mL, 1.73 +/- 0.78 h, 17.3 +/- 5.6 h, 0.960 +/- 0.025 L/h/kg and 2.41 +/- 1.13 L/kg (mean +/- SEM), respectively. ...
BACKGROUND Air pollution may promote type 2 diabetes by increasing adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. This study examined the relation between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence among 50- to 75-year-old subjects living in Westfriesland, the Netherlands. METHODS Participants were recruited in a cross-sectional diabetes screening-study conducted between 1998 and 2000. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was characterized at the part ...
In contrast to the established role of blood vessel remodeling in inflammation, the biologic function of the lymphatic vasculature in acute inflammation has remained less explored. We studied 2 established models of acute cutaneous inflammation, namely, oxazolone-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and ultraviolet B irradiation, in keratin 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and keratin 14-VEGF-D transgenic mice. These mice have an expanded network of cutaneous lymphatic v ...
Probiotics are believed to alleviate allergic and inflammatory skin disorders, but their impact on pathogenic effector T cells remains poorly documented. Here we show that oral treatment with the probiotic bacteria L. casei (DN-114 001) alone alleviates antigen-specific skin inflammation mediated by either protein-specific CD4(+) T cells or hapten-specific CD8(+) T cells. In the model of CD8(+) T cell-mediated skin inflammation, which reproduces allergic contact dermatitis in human, inhibition o ...
The inflammatory response is a highly regulated physiological process that is critically important for homeostasis. A precise physiological control of inflammation allows a timely reaction to invading pathogens or to other insults without causing overreaction liable to damage the host. The cellular signaling pathways identified as important regulators of inflammation are the signal transduction cascades mediated by the nuclear factor-kappaB and the activator protein-1, which can both be modulate ...
Though magnetic resonance (MRI) is a widely accepted standard for the assessment of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, efforts to correlate symptoms to MRI findings have often given controversial results. Aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between TMJ pain and findings of contrast-enhanced MRI. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with TMJ dysfunction syndrome (study group) were examined with MRI. Protocol included T2 turbo spin-echo sequence, T1 spin-echo sequ ...
Five patients with small-fibre neuropathy characterized by temperature-dependent spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia/allodynia and signs of neurogenic inflammation were studied clinically and thermographically, and by microneurography. Thermography revealed hyperthermia confined to painful and hyperalgesic skin of distal extremities, in absence of sympathetic vasomotor denervation. Quantitative sensory testing documented either reduced thresholds or increased suprathreshold magnitude for heat pain. M ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in up to one-third of the general population and in the majority of patients with metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor resulting in hepatic fat accumulation. Recent evidence demonstrates NAFLD in turn exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and often precedes glucose intolerance. Once hepatic steatosis is established, other factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfuncti ...
OBJECTIVES To estimate the extent of genomic DNA damage and killing of lymphocytes by reactive oxygen intermediates in autoimmune diseases. METHODS 8-Oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a promutagenic DNA lesion induced by reactive oxygen intermediates, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, in hydrolysates of DNA which had been extracted from lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leucocyte fractions of human blood. In addition, human primar ...
Background:Adiponectin is an abundantly expressed adipocyte-specific protein, whose level is decreased in obesity, and which appears to be a key participant in developing inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether the relationship between adiponectin and inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and MetS was independent of obesity.Methods and results:The study was performed in 1094 men and women, aged 27–77 years, from a representative community populati ...
Among children, newborn infants are most vulnerable to development of thrombosis and serious thromboembolic complications. Amongst newborns, those neonates who are critically ill, both term and preterm, are at greatest risk for developing symptomatic thromboembolic disease. The most important risk factors are inflammation, DIC, impaired liver function, fluctuations in cardiac output, and congenital heart disease, as well as exogenous risk factors such as central venous or arterial catheters. In ...
p8 is a transcription cofactor whose expression is strongly and rapidly activated in pancreatic acinar cells during the acute phase of pancreatitis. A p8-deficient mouse strain was generated as a tool to investigate its function. Upon induction of acute pancreatitis, myeloperoxidase activity in pancreas and serum concentrations of amylase and lipase were much higher and pancreatic lesions more severe in p8-deficient mice than in wild-type, indicating that p8 expression decreased pancreatic sensi ...
T helper (TH)-cell subsets, such as TH1 and TH17, mediate inflammation in both peripheral tissues and central nervous system. Here we show that STAT5 is required for T helper-cell pathogenicity in autoimmune neuroinflammation but not in experimental colitis. Although STAT5 promotes regulatory T cell generation and immune suppression, loss of STAT5 in CD4+ T cells resulted in diminished development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Our result ...
BACKGROUND Crohn disease (CD) is associated with osteoporosis and other extraintestinal manifestations that might be mediated by cytokines from circulating (peripheral blood) mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces disease activity in patients with CD with raised laboratory markers of inflammation and in healthy subjects alters PBMC function. OBJECTIVE We investigated the effect of fish oil plus antioxidants on cytokine pro ...
It has been proposed that infections with helminths can protect from the development of allergic diseases. However, epidemiological and experimental studies have yielded conflicting results. Therefore we investigated if an infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis influenced the development of allergen-induced Th2 cell responses in mice. We found a decrease in allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and Eotaxin levels in the airways when mice were infected with the helminths 8 weeks, and especial ...
Peripheral immune cells and brain microglia exhibit an activated phenotype in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) patients that persists chronically and correlates with clinical measures of neurodegeneration. However, whether activation of the immune system contributes to neurodegeneration in HD, or is a consequence thereof, remains unclear. Signaling through cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) dampens immune activation. Here, we show that the genetic deletion of CB(2) receptors in a slowly progres ...
The functions of the members of the S100 family of EF-hand proteins are modulated by calcium and, in a number of cases, by zinc or copper. One such protein is S100A12, which is implicated in inflammation and host-parasite responses. Previously, we reported the structures of human S100A12 in both low (dimeric) and high (hexameric) calcium forms and, in addition, that of a complex with copper and calcium. Here we report the crystal structures of the metal-free apo form of human S100A12 at 1.77 A r ...
Accumulated evidence has indicated that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of Parkinson's disease (PD). Earlier studies have employed the inflammogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation of dopaminergic neurons. Methamphetamine (MA) dopaminergic toxicity similar to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity is frequently cited as a model of PD. In the present study, we examined whether striatal LPS exposure potentiates MA-induced dopaminergic ...
The retinal vasculature provides a unique window to assess vascular health noninvasively and directly in vivo. Advances in fundus photography and retinal image analysis techniques have enabled the objective and accurate assessment of quantitative retinal vascular caliber measurement. Over the last decade, large population-based studies have shown that retinal vascular calibers are associated with a wide range of subclinical (e.g. atherosclerosis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction) and cli ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a variety of motor and sensory deficits and it is also associated with mood disturbances. It is unclear if anxiety and depression in MS entirely reflect a subjective reaction to a chronic disease causing motor disability or rather depend on specific effects of neuroinflammation in neuronal circuits. To answer this question, behavioral, electrophysiological, and immunofluorescence experiments were performed in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE ...
Recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) remains a paramount prerequisite in innate immune defense and a critical cofounder in inflammatory vascular disease. Neutrophil recruitment comprises a cascade of concerted events allowing for capture, adhesion and extravasation of the leukocyte. Whereas PMN rolling, binding, and diapedesis are well characterized, receptor-mediated processes, mechanisms attenuating the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged glycocalyx of leukocy ...
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective cytokine in models of ischemic and nervous system injury, where it reduces neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines and increases neurogenesis and angiogenesis. EPO also improves cognition in healthy volunteers and schizophrenic patients. We studied the effect of EPO administration on the gene-expression profile in the ischemic cortex of rats after cerebral ischemia at early time points (2 and 6 h). EPO treatment up-regulated genes already increased ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The p38 kinase regulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and is regarded as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using the novel p38 inhibitor Org 48762-0, we investigated the therapeutic potential of p38 inhibition and compared this to anti-mouse (m)TNFalpha antibody treatment in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pharmacological profiles of Org 48762-0 were ch ...
Hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) has emerged as a major complication of preterm birth and is especially problematic to treat. The hydrocephalus is usually ascribed to fibrosing arachnoiditis, meningeal fibrosis and subependymal gliosis, which impair flow and resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent experimental studies have suggested that acute parenchymal compression and ischemic damage, and increased parenchymal and perivascular deposition of extracellular matrix pr ...
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. Curcumin has als ...
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a family of closely related proteins that inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the central nervous system (CNS), TIMPs 2, 3, and 4 are constitutively expressed at high levels, whereas TIMP1 can be induced by various stimuli. Here, we studied the effects of constitutive expression of TIMP1 in the CNS in transgenic mice. Transgene expression started prenatally and persisted throughout lifetime at high levels. Since MMP activity has been i ...
Blastokinin or uteroglobin (UG) is a steroid-inducible, evolutionarily conserved, secreted protein that has been extensively studied from the standpoint of its structure and molecular biology. However, the physiological function(s) of UG still remains elusive. Isolated from the uterus of rabbits during early pregnancy, UG is the founding member of a growing superfamily of proteins called Secretoglobin (Scgb). Numerous studies demonstrated that UG is a multifunctional protein with antiinflammator ...
The endothelial lining of the vasculature forms the physical barrier between the blood and underlying tissues. Junctions between adjacent endothelial cells are dynamically modulated to sustain vascular homeostasis and to support the transendothelial migration of leukocytes during inflammation. A variety of factors initiate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the opening and resealing of junctional complexes. This review focuses on three primary signaling pathways initiated within endo ...
Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterati ...
Increasing evidence suggests that plant polyphenolic compounds may protect from cardiovascular diseases, which have been addressed to their antioxidative properties. In addition, these compounds have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial potential. In the present study we tested the effects of two flavonoid compounds, quercetin and luteolin, and one alkyl gallate, octyl gallate, on the course of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were treated with qu ...